Element
Ineffective
Minimally Effective
Effective
Highly Effective
Expectations for Learning
Teacher’s purpose in a lesson or unit is unclear to students.
Teacher attempts to explain the instructional purpose, with limited success.
Teacher’s purpose for the lesson or unit is clear, including where it is situated within broader learning.
Teacher makes the purpose of the lesson or unit clear, including where it is situated within broader learning, linking that purpose to student interests.
Directions and Procedures
Teacher’s directions and procedures are confusing to students.
Teacher’s directions and procedures are clarified after initial student confusion.
Teacher’s directions and procedures are clear to students.
Teacher’s directions and procedures are clear to students and anticipate possible student misunderstanding.
Explanations of Content
Teacher’s explanation of the content is unclear or confusing or uses inappropriate language.
Teacher’s explanation of the content is uneven; some is done skillfully, but other portions are difficult to follow.
Teacher’s explanation of content is appropriate and connects with students’ knowledge and experience.
Teacher’s explanation of content is imaginative and connects with students’ knowledge and experience. Students contribute to explaining concepts to their peers.
Use of Oral and Written Language
Teacher’s spoken language is inaudible, or written language is illegible. Spoken or written language contains errors of grammar or syntax. Vocabulary may be appropriate, vague, or used incorrectly, leaving students confused.
Teacher’s spoken language is audible, and written language is legible. Both are used correctly and conform to standard English. Vocabulary is correct but limited or is not appropriate to the students’ ages or backgrounds.
Teacher’s spoken and written language is clear and correct and conforms to standard English. Vocabulary is appropriate to the students’ ages and interests.
Teacher’s spoken and written language is correct and conforms to standard English. It is also expressive, with
well-chosen vocabulary that enriches the lesson. Teacher finds opportunities to extend students’ vocabularies.

Element
Ineffective
Minimally Effective
Effective
Highly Effective
Quality of Questions
Teacher’s questions are virtually all poor quality, with low cognitive challenge and single correct responses, and they are asked in rapid succession.
Teacher’s questions are a combination of low and high quality, posed in rapid succession. Only some invite a thoughtful response.
Most of the teacher’s questions are of high quality. Adequate time is provided for students to respond.
Teacher’s questions are of uniformly high quality, with adequate time for students to respond. Students formulate many questions.
Discussion Techniques
Interaction between teacher and students is predominately recitation style, with the teacher mediating all questions and answers.
Teacher makes some attempt to engage students in genuine discussion rather than recitation, with uneven results.
Teacher creates a genuine discussion among students’ stepping aside when appropriate.
Students assume considerable responsibility for the success of the discussion, initiating topics and making unsolicited contributions.
Student Participation
A few students dominate the discussion.
Teacher attempts to engage all students in the discussion, but with only limited success.
Teacher successfully engages all students in the discussion.
Students themselves ensure that all voices are heard in the discussion.

Element
Ineffective
Minimally Effective
Effective
Highly Effective
Activities and Assignments
Activities and assignments are inappropriate for students’ age or background. Students are not mentally engaged in them.
Activities and assignments are appropriate to some students and engage them mentally, but others are not engaged.
Most activities and assignments are appropriate to students, and almost all students are cognitively engaged in exploring content.
All students are cognitively engaged in the activities and assignments in their exploration of content. Students initiate or adapt activities and projects to enhance their understanding.
Grouping of Students
Instructional groups are inappropriate to the students or to the instructional outcomes.
Instructional groups are only partially appropriate to the students or only moderately successful in advancing the instructional outcomes of the lesson.
Instructional groups are productive and fully appropriate to the students or to the instructional purposes of the lesson.
Instructional groups are productive and fully appropriate to the students or to the instructional purposes of the lesson. Students take the initiative to influence the formation or adjustment of instructional groups.
Instructional Materials and Resources
Instructional materials and resources are unsuitable to the instructional purposes or do not engage students mentally.
Instructional materials and resources are only partially suitable to the instructional purposes, or students are only partially mentally engaged with them.
Instructional materials and resources are suitable to the instructional purposes and engage students mentally.
Instructional materials and resources are suitable to the instructional purposes and engage students mentally. Students initiate the choice, adaptation, or creation of materials to enhance their learning.
Structure and Pacing
The lesson has no clearly defined structure, or the pace of the lesson is too slow or rushed, or both.
The lesson has a recognizable structure, although it is not uniformly maintained throughout the lesson. Pacing of the lesson is inconsistent.
The lesson has a clearly defined structure around which the activities are organized. Pacing of the lesson is generally appropriate.
The lesson’s structure is highly coherent, allowing for reflection and closure. Pacing of the lesson is appropriate for all student’s

Element
Ineffective
Minimally Effective
Effective
Highly Effective
Assessment Criteria
Students are not aware of the criteria and performance standards by which their work will be evaluated.
Students know some of the criteria and performance standards by which their work will be evaluated.
Students fully aware of the criteria and performance standards by which their work will be evaluated.
Students fully aware of the criteria and performance standards by which their work will be evaluated and have contributed to the development of the criteria.
Monitoring of Student Learning
Teacher does not monitor student learning in the curriculum.
Teacher monitors the progress of the class as a whole but elicits no diagnostic information.
Teacher monitors the progress of groups of students in the curriculum, making limited use of diagnostic prompts to elicit information.
Teacher actively and systematically elicits diagnostic information from individual students regarding the understanding and monitors the progress of individual students.
Feedback to Students
Teacher’s feedback to students is of poor quality and not provided in a timely manner.
Teacher’s feedback to students is uneven, and its timeliness is inconsistent.
Teacher’s feedback to students is timely and of consistently high quality.
Teacher’s feedback to students is timely and of consistently high quality, and students make use of the feedback in their learning.
Students Self-Assessment and Monitoring of Progress
Students do not engage in self-assessment or monitoring of progress.
Students occasionally assess the quality of their own work against the assessment criteria and performance standards.
Students frequently assess and monitor the quality of their own work against the assessment criteria and performance standards.
Students not only frequently assess and monitor the quality of their own work against the assessment criteria and performance standards but also make active use of that information in their learning.

Element
Ineffective
Minimally Effective
Effective
Highly Effective
Lesson Adjustment
Teacher adheres rigidly to an instructional plan, even when a change is clearly needed.
Teacher attempts to adjust a lesson when needed, with only partially successful results.
Teacher makes minor adjustment to a lesson, and the adjustment occurs smoothly.
Teacher successfully makes a major adjustment to a lesson when needed.
Response to Students
Teacher ignores or brushes aside students’ questions or interests.
Teacher attempts to accommodate students’ questions or interests, although the pacing of the lesson is disrupted.
Teacher successfully accommodates students’ questions or interests.
Teacher seizes a major opportunity to enhance learning, building on student interests or a spontaneous event.
Persistence
When a student has difficulty learning, the teacher either gives up or blames the student or the student’s home environment.
Teacher accepts responsibility for the success of all students but has only a limited repertoire of instructional strategies to draw on.
Teacher persists in seeking approaches for students who have difficulty learning, drawing on a broad repertoire of strategies.
Teacher persists in seeking approaches for students who need help, using an extensive repertoire of strategies and soliciting additional resources from the school.